Hydraulic: The Master of Pumps!

March 03, 2021

Hydraulic: The Master of Pumps!

Hydraulic is our stimulant-free pre-workout specifically formulated by Seth Feroce to enhance pumps, performance, and focus. Hydraulic is one of the few pre-workouts on the market that has efficacious doses of five patented ingredients, including:

  • CarnoSyn® beta-alanine
  • Nitrosigine®
  • GlycerSize™ 
  • AgmaMax™
  • Creatine MagnaPower®

Not to mention, Hydraulic is a stimulant-free pre-workout that you can actually feel, which is just one of the reasons why it’s one of our best sellers. After reading this article, you’ll understand why Hydraulic is a pre-workout unlike any other. We’re about to take a deep dive into each ingredient, so get ready for some knowledge bombs!

Hydraulic Ingredient Breakdown

Here’s a complete breakdown of each ingredient in Hydraulic:

B Vitamins

Since Hydraulic doesn’t contain any stimulants, we added high doses of three B vitamins to help naturally raise energy levels. Although each B vitamin has its own unique benefits, as a group, they play a major role in:

  • Converting food into energy (via metabolism)
  • Synthesizing new blood cells
  • Maintaining various body tissues, such as skin and brain cells

So if you consume a pre-workout meal, the B vitamins in Hydraulic will help turn the carbohydrates, fats, and proteins into usable energy to fuel your workout.

Now that you know what B vitamins do in general, let’s dive a little deeper into each one that’s included in Hydraulic.

Vitamin B3 (as Niacin) - 25mg (156% DV)

Niacin, also known as vitamin B3, is a water-soluble vitamin. Not only is niacin available in supplemental form, but it’s also found in several foods, including beef, poultry, fish, nuts, and legumes. After ingestion, niacin is converted into nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD), which is a coenzyme that’s more metabolically active. NAD is further converted into another active coenzyme called nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP).[1]

It’s estimated that nearly 400 enzymes require NAD to be present in order to catalyze their reactions.[1] So it’s crucial that the body has sufficient amounts of NAD to function optimally. NAD is particularly important for catabolic reactions that convert substrates (i.e. fats, carbohydrates, and proteins) into adenosine triphosphate (ATP) — the cell’s main energy source.[1]

Moreover, NAD is involved in gene expression, genome integrity, and cellular communication.[1] On the other hand, NADP helps carry out anabolic reactions (i.e. the synthesis of fatty acids and cholesterol) and maintains cellular antioxidant function.[1]

Vitamin B6 (as Pyridoxine Hydrochloride) - 25mg (1471% DV)

Vitamin B6 is another water-soluble vitamin that’s naturally found in several foods, such as beef, fish, organ meats, starchy vegetables, and some fruits. Vitamin B6 is actually the generic name for six different vitamers (compounds) that share similar properties, including, pyridoxine, pyridoxal, pyridoxamine, and their 5’-phosphate esters.[2]

Vitamin B6 is involved in a number of physiological processes and more than 100 enzyme reactions, one of which is protein metabolism. The two metabolically active coenzyme forms of vitamin B6, pyridoxal 5’ Phosphate (PLP) and pyridoxamine 5’ Phosphate (PMP).

PLP and PMP assist in the metabolism of amino acids, carbohydrates, and lipids. Vitamin B6 is also heavily involved in immune system function, glycogenolysis (the breakdown of glycogen), and gluconeogenesis (synthesis of glucose).[2]

Since glucose is one of the body’s preferred energy sources, having a sufficient amount of glucose is crucial for the production of ATP required for exercise.[2]

Vitamin B12 (as Methylcobalamin) - 500mcg (20833% DV)

The last B vitamin included in Hydraulic is vitamin B12, as methylcobalamin. Vitamin B12 is a water-soluble vitamin that’s naturally found in eggs, fish, poultry, meat, and dairy products. Since vitamin B12 contains the mineral cobalt, the compounds that express vitamin B12 activity are referred to as cobalamins.[3]

Methylcobalamin, in particular, is one of the only forms of vitamin B12 that are active in human metabolism. Vitamin B12 is essential for various bodily functions, including:

  • Neurological function
  • Formation of red blood cells
  • Synthesis of DNA[3]

Vitamin B12 is also a cofactor for two important enzymes called L-methylmalonyl-CoA mutase and methionine synthase. The former assists in the conversion of homocysteine to methionine, which is required for the synthesis of a universal methyl donor known as S-adenosylmethionine (SAMe).

SAMe is a methyl donor for a variety of molecules, including RNA, DNA, protein, lipids, and hormones. Whereas the latter is involved in the conversion of L-methylmalonyl to succinyl-CoA, which is a critical reaction in fat and protein metabolism, as well as hemoglobin production.[3]

L-Citrulline - 5,000mg

L-citrulline is an amino acid that’s readily absorbed by the small intestine and converted into L-arginine in the kidneys. L-arginine is then converted to nitric oxide (NO) by the enzyme nitric oxide synthase.[4] NO is a signaling molecule that tells blood vessels to expand, also known as vasodilation.

This expansion allows blood, which carries nutrients and oxygen, to flow more efficiently throughout the body. During exercise, the increase in the diameter of your blood vessels not only helps you get bigger muscular pumps but also boosts your performance. The more nutrients and oxygen that can be delivered to the working muscles, the better.

We are specifically using L-citrulline as opposed to pure L-arginine because studies show that L-citrulline actually raises plasma levels of L-arginine better than arginine itself.[4]

It turns out that a large portion of supplemental L-arginine is metabolized and excreted in the digestive system before it can be absorbed into the bloodstream and used for NO production (also known as the first-pass effect). Fortunately, L-citrulline does not suffer from the first-pass effect, so it’s a much better alternative.[4]

Studies show that supplementing with anywhere from 2.4 to 6 grams of L-citrulline prior to exercise can:

  • Improve performance (especially high-intensity strength training and power exercises)
  • Promote recovery by reducing muscular soreness
  • Decrease ratings of perceived exertion (how difficult an exercise feels)
  • Support cardiovascular health[4,5]

Overall, L-citrulline is one of the most researched ingredients in the sports nutrition industry and is proven time and again to be not only effective but also safe.[4,5]

Glycerol Powder (standardized to 65% Glycerol) (as GlycerSize™) - 3,000mg

The first of five patented ingredients in Hydraulic is GlycerSize™ (formerly known as GlycerPump™), a more stable glycerol powder that’s standardized to contain at least 65% glycerol. Unlike L-citrulline, glycerol is a sugar alcohol that promotes muscular pumps and performance by increasing water retention in muscle cells.[6]

L-citrulline and GlycerSize™ work synergistically to boost muscular pumps and performance by working through two different pathways. One draws blood into the muscle, while the other draws water into the muscle.

Since glycerol has extremely powerful water-attracting properties, it can leave your body in a hyper-hydrated state. This is very advantageous for those who sweat a lot or even exercise in hot and humid environments.[6-12]

It’s well established that dehydration can negatively affect exercise performance, regardless of what activity you’re performing. Fortunately, glycerol can help prevent dehydration from occurring by increasing your total water volume.[6-12]

Several studies have shown that supplementing with glycerol can:

  • Boost hydration
  • Increase muscular endurance
  • Enhance cardiovascular function
  • Improve thermoregulation
  • Promote muscular pumps[6-12]

It’s important to note that generic glycerol powder causes clumping, especially when exposed to moisture. This is why we specifically use GlycerSize™ to avoid that potential issue.

L-Taurine - 2,000mg

Taurine is a conditionally essential amino acid that contains a high amount of sulfonic acid, which contributes to its potent antioxidant properties. Taurine is classified as conditionally essential because it can be endogenously produced by the body. However, under certain circumstances, the body may need more taurine than what it can produce on its own, such as in times of extreme stress, injury, or illness.

Taurine is involved in multiple physiological processes, but in regards to exercise, it’s most notably involved in the regulation of calcium in both skeletal and cardiac muscle cells.[13] Calcium is essential for carrying out muscular contractions. So without sufficient levels of calcium, your performance will significantly decline.

Due to taurine’s ability to help regulate calcium levels in both skeletal and muscle cells, research shows supplementing with it may improve: 

  • Muscular endurance
  • Recovery
  • Insulin sensitivity
  • Muscle force
  • Glycogen resynthesis
  • Amino acid levels in skeletal muscle[13,14]

One study published in the journal Sports Medicine found that supplementing with 1 to 6 grams of taurine per day significantly improves human endurance performance.[14]

Beta Alanine (as CarnoSyn®) - 2,400mg

The second patented ingredient in Hydraulic is CarnoSyn® beta-alanine, which is an ingredient that you can really feel. If you’ve ever taken a pre-workout in the past and felt a tingling or itching sensation shortly after, more often than not, it contains a fair amount of beta-alanine.

If you’re one of those people that experience paresthesia (a pins-and-needles sensation that normally occurs in the hands, feet, and/or face) from beta-alanine, don’t be alarmed. It’s harmless and usually subsides within 30 to 45 minutes. Furthermore, the longer you use beta-alanine the less likely you will experience paraesthesia.

Beyond paresthesia, beta-alanine is widely considered to be a safe and effective ergogenic aid.[15,16] Beta-alanine is a precursor to carnosine, a dipeptide molecule that’s highly concentrated in skeletal muscle. Since beta-alanine can effectively increase carnosine levels, it significantly boosts muscular endurance, strength, and power.[15,16]

Carnosine carries out its performance-enhancing effects by buffering metabolites, such as lactic acid, which are produced during exercise.[15,16] An accumulation of lactic acid results in a decrease in pH levels, causing the environment in the skeletal muscle to be more acidic. This reduction in pH negatively affects several enzymes involved in energy production. Therefore, the longer the body can keep lactic acid levels at bay, the longer it can perform at a high level.

Other than boosting muscular endurance, some studies show that beta-alanine can:

  • Increase lean body mass
  • Enhance mental performance
  • Improve recovery[15-17]

Instead of using a generic form of beta-alanine, we specifically use CarnoSyn® for Hydraulic. CarnoSyn® is the only patented form of beta-alanine on the market that’s achieved new dietary ingredient status (NDI), self-affirmed GRAS (generally regarded as safe) status, and backed by years of research.[17]

Magnesium Creatine Chelate (as Creatine MagnaPower®) - 1,500mg

The third patented ingredient in Hydraulic is Creatine MagnaPower®, which consists of creatine chelated (bound) to magnesium. Creatine is an organic compound that’s naturally produced in the body and found in some foods, most notably red meat. Besides caffeine, creatine is the most studied ingredient in sports nutrition. It’s been proven time and again to be safe and effective.[18]

Studies have shown that creatine significantly increases:

  • Power output
  • Muscular strength
  • Performance
  • Lean body mass[18]

Creatine may also have some cognitive benefits and delay the onset of fatigue.[17] Creatine gets stored in the body as creatine phosphate and is used for the regeneration of cellular energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP).[18]

Magnesium is an essential mineral that plays a vital role in muscle and nerve function. It also contributes to immune system function, protein synthesis, blood glucose control, and regulation of blood pressure.[19]

In regards to exercise, supplementing with magnesium may further boost endurance and overall performance. Although creatine and magnesium are phenomenal supplements on their own, it turns out that combining creatine with magnesium may provide even more benefits. 

Enter Creatine MagnaPower®…

Creatine MagnaPower® was developed by Albion Human Nutrition after they discovered that creatine and magnesium have a synergistic effect on exercise performance. Some studies show that the absorption of creatine can be negatively affected by an insufficient amount of minerals, such as magnesium.[20]  Simply put, without magnesium, the body will excrete a greater amount of creatine.

So instead of using creatine for ATP production, it will simply be wasted. This occurs because major electrolytes (i.e. potassium, magnesium, and sodium) serve as transporters for creatine, so they help facilitate absorption from the small intestine to the bloodstream.[20] Theoretically, combining magnesium and creatine allows the body to uptake more creatine and get better results. Moreover, research has found that the more physically active you are, the more magnesium you need.[21]

In summary, Creatine MagnaPower® will significantly boost your body’s ability to regenerate energy, which is crucial during intense exercise. This is one of the reasons why Hydraulic gives you an energy boost without using stimulants.

Agmatine Sulfate (AgmaMax™) - 1,000mg

The fourth patented ingredient in Hydraulic is AgmaMax™ (also known as agmatine sulfate). As the name suggests, AgmaMax™ is designed to maximize your pumps by preventing the breakdown of arginine. Research shows that AgmaMax™ helps sustains arginine levels by inhibiting arginase, which is the enzyme that’s responsible for metabolizing arginine.[22]

Since both L-citrulline and Nitrosigine® will be actively elevating arginine levels, it’s important to have a compound that protects their positive effects. When the body senses elevated levels of arginine, it wants to lower them back to homeostasis by ramping up the activity of arginase. So AgmaMax™ is here to ensure that the extra arginine isn’t being destroyed.

Moreover, agmatine is capable of activating nitric oxide synthase, which is the enzyme that produces nitric oxide. As you know by now, more nitric oxide means more vasodilation, pumps, and performance![23] Overall, the combination of AgmaMax™, L-citrulline, and Nitrosigine® will ensure that your pumps last the entire workout.

In addition to promoting your pumps, AgmaMax™ also acts as a neurotransmitter and neuromodulator, so it may have cognitive boosting effects as well.[24] In summary, AgmaMax™ will maximize your pumps, focus, and performance by working synergistically with the other ingredients in Hydraulic.

L-Tyrosine & N-Acetyl-L-Tyrosine - 1,250mg

To further elevate your focus and mind-to-muscle connection, Hydraulic has a total of 1.25 grams of tyrosine. Similar to taurine, tyrosine is classified as a conditionally essential amino acid because the body can produce it endogenously.

Although, excessive amounts of physical and mental stress can significantly deplete tyrosine levels, so supplementing with tyrosine prior to exercise may boost performance.[25]

Tyrosine is a precursor to three primary catecholamine neurotransmitters:

  • Dopamine: responsible for mood, motivation, memory, reward, body movements, and pleasure
  • Norepinephrine: increases heart rate, blood pressure, and the breakdown of fatty acids and glycogen
  • Epinephrine: raises blood sugar levels, heart rate, and lipolysis[25]

These three neurotransmitters play an important role in cell-to-cell communication and are heavily involved in the sympathetic nervous system, which is active during exercise. By increasing the production of norepinephrine, epinephrine, and dopamine, tyrosine can mitigate stress and boost cognitive function.[25]

To maximize the benefits of tyrosine, Hydraulic uses two different forms — L-tyrosine and N-acetyl-L-tyrosine (NALT). Two scoops of Hydraulic contains 1 gram of L-tyrosine and 250 milligrams of NALT. The main difference between L-tyrosine and NALT is their chemical composition.

As the name suggests, NALT is an acetylated form of tyrosine so it’s more water-soluble. However, they’re both precursors to the neurotransmitters mentioned above, so they will have similar effects.

Inositol-Stabilized Arginine Silicate (as Nitrosigine®) - 1,000mg

Last but not least, Hydraulic contains 1 gram of Nitrosigine®, a patented complex of inositol, arginine, and silicate (ASI). Nitrosigine®, from Nutrition21, is the fifth and final patented ingredient in Hydraulic. As we mentioned before, pure L-arginine on its own isn’t very effective due to its poor bioavailability.[26] But by combining L-arginine with inositol and silicate, Nutrition21 was able to solve this problem.[26]

Since Nitrosigine® doesn’t fall victim to the first-pass effect, it’s readily absorbed in the small intestine and converted into nitric oxide. What’s most impressive is that research shows that just 1.5 grams of Nitrosigine® is as effective as 8 grams of citrulline malate in terms of boosting nitric oxide levels.[27]

What’s more, research shows that Nitrosigine® can improve:

  • Cognitive flexibility
  • Blood flow
  • Focus
  • Energy
  • Physical and cognitive performance
  • Promote recovery[27-31]

As of writing this article, Nitrosigine® has over 10 patents and applications pending worldwide and 30 supporting research studies.[32] Needless to say, Nitrosigine® is one of the most cutting-edge ingredients in sports nutrition and it has plenty of research to support its use.

Suggested Use

For optimal results, we recommend taking one to two scoops of Hydraulic with 8 to 10 ounces of cold water and consuming 20 to 30 minutes prior to training. Since Hydraulic doesn’t contain stimulants you can take it any time of the day, without disrupting your sleep.

Stacking options

Hydraulic stacks well with:

Demo Day

  • Mix 1-2 scoops of Hydraulic with 1-2 scoops of Demo Day and 10 to 12 ounces of cold water.
  • Consume 20 to 30 minutes prior to training.

Ignition Switch

  • Mix 1-2 scoops of Hydraulic with 1 scoop of Ignition Switch and 10 to 12 ounces of cold water.
  • Consume 20 to 30 minutes prior to training.

Seth Feroce 1-1-1 Stack

  • Mix 1 scoop each of Hydraulic, Demo Day, and Ignition Switch with 10 to 12 ounces of cold water.
  • Consume 20 to 30 minutes prior to training.

Vincenzo's MASS Stack

  • Mix 1 scoop each of Hydraulic, Seventh Gear, and Demo Day in 10 to 12 ounces of cold water.
  • Consume 20 to 30 minutes prior to training.

Flavors

Currently, we have seven flavors of Hydraulic to choose from, which includes:

  • Unicorn Blood (Rainbow Sherbet)
  • Deadlifts & Gummy Bears (Sweet Gummy Bear)
  • HWMF (Blue Raspberry, Cherry, & Lime)
  • Swamp Beast (Apple Berry)
  • Shark Bite (Orange Mango)
  • Scorpion Venom (Mixed Berry)
  • Strawberry Lemonade

All of the flavors are designed to be stacked with our other peri-workout supplements, such as The Grind, Ignition Switch, Demo Day, and Seventh Gear. So you don't have to worry about any unpleasant flavor combinations!

References

  1. National Institutes of Health. Accessed Feb. 2021. “Niacin: Health Professional Fact Sheet.” Office of Dietary Supplements. https://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/Niacin-HealthProfessional/
  2. National Institutes of Health. Accessed Feb. 2021. “Vitamin B6: Health Professional Fact Sheet.” Office of Dietary Supplements.https://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/VitaminB6-HealthProfessional/
  3. National Institutes of Health. Accessed Fed. 2021. “Vitamin B12: Health Professional Fact Sheet. “Office of Dietary Supplements.https://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/VitaminB12-HealthProfessional/
  4. Bailey, S. et al. Aug. 2015. “L-Citrulline Supplementation Improves O2 Uptake Kinetics and High-Intensity Exercise Performance in Humans.” Journal of Applied Physiology, vol. 119, 4.https://journals.physiology.org/doi/full/10.1152/japplphysiol.00192.2014
  5. Rhim, H. et al. Dec. 2020. “Effect of Citrulline on Post-Exercise Ration of Perceived Exertion, Muscle Soreness, and Blood Lactate Levels: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.” Journal of Sport and Health Science, vol. 9, 6.https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2095254620300168
  6. Patlar, S. et al. Oct. 2012.“The Effect of Glycerol Supplements on Aerobic and Anaerobic Performance of Athletes and Sedentary Subjects.” Journal of Human Kinetics, vol. 34.https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3590833/
  7. Wingo, J. et al. Apr-Jun 2004. “Influence of Pre-Exercise Glycerol Hydration Beverage on Performance and Physiological Function During Mountain-Bike Races in the Heat.” Journal of Athletic Training, vol. 39,2.https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC419512/
  8. Koenigsburg, P. et al. 1995. “Sustained Hyperhydration with Glycerol Ingestion.” Life Sciences, vol. 57, 7.https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/7637536/
  9. Montner, P. et al. Jan. 1996. “Pre-Exercise Glycerol Hydration Improves Cycling Endurance.” International Journal of Sports Medicine, vol. 17, 1.https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/8775573/
  10. Monter, P. et al. Jan. 1999. “Glycerol Hyperhydration Alters Cardiovascular and Renal Function.” Journal of Exercise Physiology, vol. 2,1.https://www.asep.org/asep/asep/jan12c.htm
  11. Anderson, M. et al. Sept. 2001. “Effect of Glycerol-Induced Hyperhydration on Thermoregulation and Metabolism during Exercise in the Heat.” International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism, vol. 11,3.https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/11591882/
  12. Lyons, T. et al. Aug. 1990. “Effects of Glycerol-Induced Hyperhydration Prior to Exercise on Sweating and Core Temperature.” Medicine Science in Sports & Science, vol. 22,4.https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/2402207/
  13. Carvalho, F. et al. Sept. 2017. “Taurine: A True Potential Ergogenic Aid for Preventing Muscle Damage and Protein Catabolism and Decreasing Oxidative Stress Caused by Endurance Exercise.” Frontiers in Physiology, vol. 8,710.https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5611412/
  14. Waldron, M. et al. May 2018. “The Effects of an Oral Dose of Taurine and Supplementation Period on Endurance Performance in Humans: A Meta-Analysis.” Sports Medicine, vol. 48,5.https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29546641/
  15. Hobson, RM. et al. Jan. 2012. “Effects of β-alanine Supplementation on Exercise Performance: A Meta-Analysis.” Amino Acids vol. 43,1: 25-37.https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3374095/
  16. Trexler, E. et al. July 2015. “International Society of Sports Nutrition: Beta-Alanine.” Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, vol. 12, 30.https://jissn.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12970-015-0090-y
  17. Natural Alternatives International Inc. Accessed Feb. 2021. “CarnoSyn®: Patented Beta-Alanine.”https://www.carnosyn.com
  18. Kredier, R. et al. June 2017. “International Society of Sports Nutrition Position Stand: Safety and Efficacy of Creatine Supplementation in Exercise, Sport, and Medicine.” Journal of The International Society of Sports Nutrition, vol. 14,18.https://jissn.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12970-017-0173-z
  19. National Institutes of Health. Accessed Feb. 2021. “Magnesium: Fact Sheet For Health Professionals.” Office of Dietary Supplements.https://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/Magnesium-HealthProfessional/
  20. Hummer, E. et al. May 2019. “Creatine Electrolyte Supplement Improves Anaerobic Power and Strength: A Randomized Double-Blind Control Study.” Journal of The International Society of Sports Nutrition, vol. 16, 24.https://jissn.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12970-019-0291-x
  21. Zhang Y. et al. Sept. 2017. “Can Magnesium Enhance Exercise Performance?” Nutrients, vol. 9,9.https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5622706/
  22. Legaz, M. et al. Feb. 1983. “Endogenous Inactivators of Arginase, L-Arginine Decarboxylase, and Agmatine Aminohydrolase in Evernia Prunastri Thallus.” Plant Physiology, vol. 71,2.https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/16662821/
  23. Morrissey, J. et al. Jan. 1997. “Agmatine Activation of Nitric Oxide Synthase in Endothelial Cells.” Proceedings of the American Physicians, vol. 109,1.https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/9010916/
  24. Li, Y. et al. May 2003. “Antidepressant-like Effect of Agmatine and Its Possible Mechanism.” European Journal of Pharmacology, vol. 469, 1-3.https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/12782188/
  25. Attipoe, S. et al. July 2015. “Tyrosine for Mitigating Stress and Enhancing Performance in Healthy Adult Humans, A Rapid Assessment of the Literature.” Military Medicine, vol. 180, 7.https://academic.oup.com/milmed/article/180/7/754/4160625
  26. Komorowski, J. et al. Apr. 2016. “A Pharmacokinetic Evaluation of the Duration of Effect of Inositol-Stabilized Arginine Silicate and Arginine Hydrochloride in Healthy Adult Males.” The Journal of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology.https://faseb.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1096/fasebj.30.1_supplement.690.17
  27. Rogers, JM et al. Feb. 2020. “Acute effects of Nitrosigine® and Citrulline Malate on Vasodilation in Young Adults.” Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition. 17, 12.https://jissn.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12970-020-00343-y
  28. Rood-Ojalvo, S. et al. Sep. 2015. “The Benefits of Inositol-Stabilized Arginine Silicate as a Workout Ingredient.” Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, 12. https://jissn.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1550-2783-12-S1-P14
  29. Kalman, D. et al. 2015. “A Clinical Evaluation to Determine the Safety, Pharmacokinetics, and Pharmacodynamics of an Inositol-Stabilized Arginine Silicate Dietary Supplement in Healthy Adult Males.” Clinical Pharmacology: Advances and Applications vol. 103.https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4603712/
  30. Kalman, D. et al. June 2018. “Randomized Prospective Double-Blind Studies to Evaluate the Cognitive Effects of Inositol-Stabilized Arginine Silicate in Healthy Physically Active Adults” Nutrients, vol. 8,11.https://www.mdpi.com/2072-6643/8/11/736
  31. Ojalvo, P. et al. Oct. 2017. “Effect of Bonded Arginine Silicate on Inflammatory Markers and Arthritis.” FASEB Journal, vol. 37, S1.https://faseb.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1096/fasebj.31.1_supplement.166.5
  32. Nutrition21. Accessed Feb. 2021. “Nitrosigine®.”https://nutrition21.com/nitrosigine/

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